Correctional nursing practice is complex. Nearly 1 out of every 100 people in the United States is incarcerated in a jail, prison or juvenile detention facility. Health needs of this population are characterized by disproportionate rates of mental illness, alcohol and drug dependence, victimization, traumatic injury, and both chronic and infectious disease. Minorities are over-represented among the incarcerated so correctional nurses are vigilant in the identification and treatment of conditions that represent greater morbidity and mortality for these groups and deliver care with cultural competence. Chapters are devoted to the nursing care provided to patients who have chronic disease, infectious disease, mental illness, pain, or who are in withdrawal. Other chapters describe the unique health needs and resulting nursing care for specific populations including women, juveniles, or individuals at the end of life.