On May 27, 2013 the American Nurses Association (ANA) published the new edition of Correctional Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice (2013). These are broad parameters defining our specialty area of practice that transcend geographic location (south, east, west, midwest), type of employer (public/private, jail, prison, detention center), and the various populations served in correctional health care (sentenced, unsentenced, juvenile, female etc.). The standards define who, what, where, when, why and how of nursing practice (ANA, 2010, p.2). The ANA standards are used to:
inform nurses and others about correctional nursing practice
guide nurse’s day- to- day practice and resolve conflicts
develop policy and procedure and other governance of professional practice
reflect on professional practice and plan improvement
Correctional nursing was first acknowledged as a specialty practice by the ANA in 1985. At that time, the first standards for the specialty were published as: Standards of Nursing Practice in Correctional Facilities. Since 1985 the standards for correctional nursing have been revised four times. This revision was the result of collaboration among seventeen correctional nursing leaders representing various settings and organizations. Input from correctional nurses was sought at various conferences, by survey, and during a public comment period over a period of eighteen months. The input from practicing nurses was incorporated into the description of the scope of correctional nursing practice.
Patricia Voermans MS, RN, APN, CCHP-RN, chairperson of the task force described this edition as “expanding the description of the patient population and addressing the challenges of delivering evidenced based care in the correctional setting. It also discusses the evolving role of nurses in coordinating care, developing policy and continuing leadership in correctional health care” (April 22, 2013).
Correctional nursing is defined as… “the protection, promotion and optimization of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response, advocacy, and delivery of health care to individuals, families, communities, and populations under the jurisdiction of the criminal justice system” (ANA, 2013). It is the location of nursing care, with its unique population demographics, environmental constraints and ethical dilemmas that defines our specialty practice (Voermans, Schoenly & Knox, April 22, 2013).
There are sixteen standards of correctional nursing practice in the new edition. The first six standards delineate the steps used in the nursing process. The next ten standards define the professional role of nurses in the correctional setting. This edition emphasizes the importance of communication and collaboration in the delivery of safe and effective patient care. The areas covered by the standards are listed in the table below.
|Table 1: Scope & Standards of Practice for Correctional Nurses|
|1. Assessment||7. Ethics|
|2. Diagnosis||8. Education|
|3. Outcomes Identification||9. Evidence-Based Practice and Research|
|4. Planning||10. Quality of Practice|
|5. Implementation||11. Communication|
|6. Evaluation||12. Leadership|
|14. Professional Practice Evaluation|
|15. Resource Utilization|
|16. Environmental Health|
Correctional nursing: Scope and standards of practice. (2013). 2nd Edition. Silver Spring, MD: American Nurses Association.
Each standard is further defined by the competencies registered nurses and graduate-level prepared or advanced practice registered nurses (APRN) are expected to demonstrate in meeting the standard. Competency is defined as the integration of knowledge, skills, abilities and judgment needed to achieve an expected level of performance (White & O’Sullivan 2012). The registered nurse is responsible for maintaining professional competence and accountable for each of the decisions made in their nursing practice.
Standard 16 on Environmental Health is a new standard and requires the correctional registered nurse to practice in an environmentally safe and healthy manner. Environmental health is the assessment and control of factors in the environment that can potentially affect health. Two of the competencies of the correctional registered nurse in this area of practice are:
- Knowledge of environmental health concepts, with implementation of environmental health strategies.
- Reducing environmental health risks for workers, patients, and others in the correctional setting.
To experience how the ANA standards are applied in day to day practice they have been interwoven into every chapter of the Essentials of Correctional Nursing which can be ordered directly from the publisher. If you use Promo Code AF1209 the price is discounted by $15 off and shipping is free.
Copies of Correctional Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice, 2nd Edition (2013) can be ordered from the ANA at http://nursesbooks.org/Homepage/Hot-off-the-Press/Correctional-Nursing-2nd.aspx. When you receive your copy of the new edition of the ANA standards one suggestion is to assess your competency to practice in conformance with each of the standards. Select one or more areas that you would like to improve and develop a plan to do so.
We will share more about how to use the standards in correctional nursing practice in future posts. In the meantime what experiences have you had applying the ANA Correctional Nursing: Scope and standards in your daily practice? What tools or resources did you find most helpful? Please share your experience and advice in the comments section of this post.
American Nurses Association. (1985). Standards of nursing practice in correctional facilities. Washington, DC: American Nurses Association.
American Nurses Association. (2013). Correctional nursing scope and standards of practice. Silver Spring, MD: American Nurses Association.
Schoenly, L. (2013). Overview of Correctional Nursing. In Schoenly, L. & Knox, C. Essentials of Correctional Nursing. New York: Springer.
Voermans, P., Knox, C., Schoenly, L. (April 22, 2013). Correctional Nursing: Applying the New Scope and Standards of Practice. NCCHC Spring Conference 2013, Denver, Co. Accessed May 8, 2013 at http://ncchc.sclivelearningcenter.com/index.aspx?PID=4622&SID=172421
White, K., O’Sullivan, A. (2012). The Essential Guide to Nursing Practice: Applying ANAs Scope and Standards in Practice and Education. American Nurses Association. Silver Springs, MD.
Photo Credit: American Nurses Association NSPS’10_Fig 4 Nursing Process Stds