FLU-Give it a Shot!

flu-shot-photoOctober is a busy month for health professionals. We celebrate Breast Cancer Awareness Month, Mental Health Awareness Week, Dental Hygiene Month, Chiropractic Health Month, Pharmacist Month, Domestic Violence Awareness Month, Health Literacy Month and Patient Centered Care Awareness Month.

There are more awareness areas to be celebrated.  However, one is missing from the list.  It is special to October as it is the month that flu season begins and we all should be planning flu clinics and getting our own flu vaccines.

Recently the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Advisory Committee on Immunization and Practices (ACIP) adopted recommendations for the 2016-2017 flu season. This year two changes are noteworthy. The first is that the live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has been found to be ineffective and will be unavailable this year. The second is that they have eliminated the egg allergy limitations of the past.

2016-2017 Changes

  • Flu Mist is Out-With no significant effectiveness found with the live virus vaccine, this year children’s immunization recommendations are for intermuscular doses only. Basically, children under 9 years of age will require one injection, children 6months to 8 years old will require two doses of the vaccine, unless they have received intermuscular injections in the past. Everyone 9 years of age and older, require only one dose of the 2016-2017 flu vaccine.
  • Egg Allergy Recommendations-These recommendations have changed a lot from prior years and the ACIP has listed the changes on their website. In summary, patients should still be observed for 15 minutes after the vaccine just in case there is a reaction. If a person has a history of a severe allergy to eggs, a medical provider should monitor their vaccinations. 

Nurses Responsibilities in Herd Immunity: Since corrections health is community health in many ways, nurses have a very important role during flu season and that begins with getting vaccinated. In the world of patient safety, a term called “Herd Immunity” is referred to as a means of stopping the spread of diseases. It also be called community immunity and describes protection from a contagious disease with community wide vaccination. The goal is prevention and containment of the disease. The concept is for the chain of infection to be interrupted by those vaccinated thus stopping the spread of disease to a susceptible host.

18 States have Mandates: In taking a leadership role in disease prevention, 18 states no longer allow health professionals to make a personal choice in obtaining an influenza vaccine. These laws are based on the hospital or facility type at this time. Since corrections facilities have a very fragile and vulnerable population, the same mandate should apply to personnel who work in these facilities as well.  Use this link to research the vaccination laws being published by the CDC.

Prevention is the Key: As nurses, we incorporate prevention into all our patient care activities and treatments. Key prevention tips include:

  • Wash your hands frequently and effectively.
  • Avoid close contact with those who show signs and symptoms of illness.
  • Stay home from work when you are sick.
  • Cover your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth.
  • Practice good health habits to stay healthy yourself.
  • Obtain flu vaccines for yourself and your family.

Outbreaks: In our corrections facilities, we do not have the luxury of isolating people in their homes or controlling their activities. However, there are processes we can plan for before an outbreak occurs or put in place if an outbreak occurs in your facility.

  • Educate the population about flu season and what they can do to reduce their risk.
  • Work with the local health department or pharmacist for a supply of flu vaccine. The supply this year is supposed to be adequate.
  • Monitor for outbreaks and track them. Work with custody to group ill inmates together, reduce movement, and limit visiting and other things to reduce transmission.
  • If ill patients have to go to court, institute droplet precautions by issuing a mask. Use a gown and gloves if necessary. Sometimes I have seen video court used with ill inmates or court delayed.
  • Administer antiviral treatment for those most vulnerable such as the elderly, chronically ill, immune compromised, pregnant or have acute medical conditions.
  • Consider vaccines for the entire population. Whether a jail or prison, every flu vaccine you administer, reduces the spread of disease in the community when they are released or have visitors.
  • Remember custody in your vaccination program. They want to stay healthy and not spread disease just like health staff.

Remember that vaccination is a community effort. Nurses’ commitment to vaccination best practices is critical to staying healthy and saving patient lives this influenza season. GIVE IT A SHOT

What is the influenza immunization policy in your institution? What practices are part of your plan to reduce the spread of disease? What happens when your facility has a flu outbreak? We enjoy hearing about your experience so please reply in the comment section.

Read more about the identification and management of infectious diseases in the correctional setting in our book the Essentials of Correctional Nursing. Order a copy directly from the publisher or from Amazon today! 

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Protective Gear for Correctional Nurses

The post last week talked about the problem of nurses being exposed to inappropriate and hostile sexual behaviors by inmates and the kinds of interventions that should be in place to minimize or control antisocial inmate behavior. Nurses were advised not to confront this behavior single handedly but to look to the facility for guidance. But that is just half the solution, the other half, which is the subject of today’s post, is that individuals can take steps on their own to minimize the adverse effects of these unfortunate situations on themselves.

The reality is that bad things do happen in corrections. Even in the best run correctional facilities inmates are injured and sometimes staff are injured as a result of violence and on some of these occasions died as a result of the violence. The nature of the correctional environment is that it always has the potential for immediate violence and direct trauma. Another pervasive aspect of our working environment is that because of the involuntary conditions of incarceration, there is inherent conflict, particularly between staff and inmates. These two features of the work environment combined with operational stressors, such as high workload, contribute to what has been called “Corrections Fatigue”.

It has been suggested that correctional staff prepare themselves to be in this environment the same way that they don other protective gear. An analogy for correctional nurses would be gowning, gloving and putting on a properly fitted mask before going into the isolation room of a patient with active tuberculosis. By wearing protective gear staff minimize their exposure. The same concept applies to the trauma associated with repeated exposure to violence or threatening behavior. What kind of “gear” minimizes our repeated exposure to trauma in the corrections environment?

Resilience is a characteristic that refers to an individual’s ability to cope with adversity; it is the ability to “bounce back” after a stressful experience. Resilience varies from one person to another but we can each tend to and build our resilience. Resilience, then is our protective gear. The following four behaviors have been identified as building resilience in correctional workers.

Build Supportive Relationships at Work – Building and maintaining social support among co-workers has been found to correlate with resilience for the person offering support. By building genuine bonds with co-workers we increase our sense of safety, reduce interpersonal tension and staff conflict. Examples of behaviors that are supportive of relationships at work include:

  • being friendly and respectful,
  • asking how a co-worker is and paying attention to their answer,
  • acknowledging a job well done,
  • looking for ways to assist others when you have time,
  • thanking others for their assistance, and
  • being compassionate with others’ experiences.

Take Care of Yourself – How many times have we as health care providers offered this advice to others? And yet we are known to neglect ourselves, making us vulnerable to burnout, compassion fatigue and now, corrections fatigue. Being healthy is a basic tenet of resilience. Healthy habits and lifestyle behaviors include those that attend not just to your physical needs, but psychological, spiritual and social needs as well. Healthy habits and lifestyle behaviors include:

  • maintaining balance between work and home life
  • mindfully transition to and from work
  • prioritize free time to be with people who are significant in your family and social life
  • engaging in pleasant activity-having fun
  • regulate negative emotions (emotional intelligence)
  • establish a regular and healthy sleep schedule.

Be Confident and Perseverant – These behaviors build competence handling complex or challenging circumstances at work. Confidence and perseverance are a result of:

  • a resolution to complete tasks even when it is difficult,
  • using self-talk to motivate oneself to persevere in the face of adversity,
  • rehearsing and repeating training so that it becomes more automatic and built in,
  • being flexible, open and adaptive to change
  • being ethical and acting with integrity.

Use Logic to Solve Problems – This approach is recommended as a way to keep your cool in the face of the complex or challenging problems we deal with in correctional health care. Thinking logically about situations means considering more than one possible cause and weighing possible responses before choosing the one that is most likely to have the effect you are seeking. This way you maintain control and composure in frustrating or disappointing circumstances. Practical ways to practice logical problem solving and self-control include:

  • divide complex problems into parts and tackle one component at a time,
  • learn how to detach emotionally from challenging situations,
  • view mistakes as learning opportunities,
  • regulate fear and other negative emotions while acting constructively,
  • accept that you cannot always be in control.

These four behaviors, supporting workplace relationships, taking care of yourself, being confident and perseverant, and logical problem solving are your protective gear (resilience) to reduce the effects of violence and other antisocial behaviors, conflict and other operational stressors that are inherent in the correctional setting on your health and well-being.

For more information about promoting wellness among staff who work in correctional settings please see the National Institute of Corrections has collected articles and other resources on this subject. They also sponsored a podcast on the subject in 2014 which can be accessed on the NIC website. Much of this information was adapted for correctional nursing from a series of articles written by Caterina Spinaris PhD., Executive Director of Desert Waters Correctional Outreach which provides training and other materials to support wellness of correctional staff including a monthly newsletter, Correctional Oasis.

I was most surprised to learn from my research for this blog post that when I offered support to co-workers it had a positive effect on me by building resilience. This new idea has me thinking about my work relationships and how I support others to see what I could do better. What resilience building behaviors have caused you to reflect on your own behaviors? Is there more you could do to protect yourself from the negative attributes of your working environment?

If you wish to comment, offer advice or share an experience concerning the subject of staff wellness please do so by responding in the comments section of this post.

Read more about correctional nursing in our book the Essentials of Correctional Nursing. Order a copy directly from the publisher or from Amazon today!

Photo credit: © designer491 – Fotolia.com

Correctional Nurse Self Care: Resilience

 

 

Peligro, cuerda rotaLast week’s commentary on the burden of moral distress brought forth the concerns and experiences of several more correctional nurses. Each of these courageous nurses described a turning point where they chose to act rather than stay silent and address the needs of their patients; each also paid a price, including termination, depression, failing health and so forth. I too, had to leave a position I had been in for 17 years because I was “in the way” of achieving the cost savings the organization had promised. This past year I witnessed a colleague being walked off the job because while she was trying to improve nursing practice she didn’t have the full support of the facility health authority. These are tremendous consequences for nursing professionals committed to quality patient care. One nurse commented that it is “easy to blame the nurses that are working with the inmates daily” rather than look up the chain of command to the organization itself and the managers responsible for the delivery of services. These experiences and the accompanying reality are the reason resilience has been identified as an essential quality to nurture as part of the caring practice of the nursing profession (Tusaie & Dyer 2004, Hodges et al. 2005, Warelow & Edward 2007).

Resilience refers to the ability to bounce back or recover from adversity (Garcia-Dia et al. 2013). Others describe resilience as the ability to grow and move forward in the face of misfortune or adversity; to adapt to adversity while retaining some sense of control and moving on in a positive manner (Jackson, Firtko & Edenborough 2007). Resilience has been suggested as a strategy for nurses to manage the emotional and physical demands of caring for patients as well as reduce their vulnerability to workplace adversity (excessive workload, organizational restructuring, lack of autonomy, bullying and violence).

The good news is that resilience is not a personality trait, that we either have or not, but instead consists of behaviors, thoughts and actions that can be developed and fostered to strengthen and adapt to our circumstances. Strategies that help build personal resilience include:

Professional relationships which are supportive and nurturing

A key component in the lives of resilient people is positive social support; having one or more people in the profession who are role models and can be called upon for guidance and support when needed. At least some of these individuals need to be from outside the immediate workplace so that support is unbiased and safe to receive, especially when the workplace is laden with tension. Another feature is that the relationship needs to be nurturing and one that fosters offers encouragement, reassurance, and individual professional growth; such as a mentoring relationship. In thinking about this, my professional network was developed among the members of the Oregon Chapter of the American Correctional Health Services Association. We meet twice a year and each meeting includes training, social time and the opportunity to discuss the workplace challenges we each struggle with. The relationships built through this local organization with other correctional nurses over the years have sustained me during many periods of crisis and change.

Maintain positivity

Positive emotions, including laughter, increase energy, change perceptions and help cope with adversity. Positivity comes from optimism or an ability to visualize potential benefits or positive aspects of an adverse situation. Considering a situation in a broader and longer-term perspective can build optimism. Indeed forcing oneself to think positively develops a greater range of resources and broadens the inventory of possible solutions in the midst of adversity (Jackson, Firtko & Edenborough 2007). The readers’ comments about their experiences with moral distress express an optimistic and positive view that reaching out to each other will create a collective voice to improve conditions in correctional health care. Techniques suggested to support positivity include visualizing what one wants rather than what is feared, identifying what brings joy to one’s life, maintaining hope for a positive outcome and laughter.

Develop emotional insight

Emotional insight is the capacity to identify, express, and recognize emotions; to incorporate emotions into thought; and to regulate both positive and negative emotions. When faced with adversity, emotion is inevitable, however we often are focused on the “who, how, what, when and where” of what is happening; unaware of how emotion is effecting us. When we can identify our emotional response to a situation we can switch our parasympathetic nervous system on and respond in a calm and rational manner and not suffer the effects of a “fight or flight” response. Understanding our emotional needs and reactions provides further insight into how we cope and may yield new ideas about how to improve our response in the future. Specific techniques suggested to develop emotional insight are relaxation exercises, guided imagery, meditation, deep breathing, journaling and reflection. See an earlier post about the use of reflection for professional growth.

Achieve life balance and spirituality

Highly resilient persons express existential beliefs, have a cohesive life narrative and appreciate their own uniqueness. This has also been described as having an anchoring force in life. In nursing, we often use the term achieving a work-life balance which is to engage in activities that are physically, emotionally and spiritually nurturing. This includes being clear about our mission in professional life, the reason for being a correctional nurse, so that we aren’t distracted in challenging times. Activities that support a balanced life include getting enough sleep, eating healthy, regular exercise, and maintaining a spiritual practice. You may want to revisit a recent post introducing self-care for correctional nurses. Another suggestion is to write and then send a letter to yourself recognizing your strengths and expressing gratitude for the work that you do.

Reflective practice

Reflection is a way to develop insight and understanding about situations so that knowledge is developed and can be used in subsequent situations. A concrete experience, such as losing one’s job or experiencing an ethical dilemma is used as a catalyst for thinking and learning. Journaling is especially helpful in adult learning because putting an experience into writing ascribes meaning to the people, places and events involved in the experience. Reflection is an opportunity for self-discovery; many people report better relationships, greater personal strength and self-worth, a deeper spirituality and heightened appreciation for life as a result of the self-growth that takes place after adversity. One of our readers said exactly that… “I have learned so much about myself, and systems change, and leaders vs managers.” I have to agree based upon my own experience; I am a stronger, more skilled professional than I ever was and have more to give others as a result of the self-discovery that took place after leaving, so long ago, a job I loved.

 

No one wants to experience workplace adversity and professional burnout and yet we know from our own experience and those of our readers, it is a reality in correctional nursing. Recognizing and building resilience personally and within our organizations is a strategy that is becoming part of the profession’s uniform. Below are several excellent resources for developing nursing resilience:

  1. Resilient Nurses: How health care providers handle their stressful profession. Written and produced for Public Radio. Consists of two ½ hour interviews with several leading nursing experts. The second segment includes techniques used to handle unusual strain as well as everyday stressors in nursing. It also includes a relaxation audio, a booklet, a CD and a list of resources.
  2. How can nurses build resilience and master stress? A summary of a 16 week series on Activating Resilience in Nursing and Leadership by Cynthia Howard. Links are included to other posts in her series on resilience.
  3. University of Virginia School of Nursing, Compassionate Care Initiative, is dedicated to teaching nurses resilience and compassion in health care. The site includes a link to “nurses thrive!” an online community of nurses dedicated to promoting resiliency. Also includes resources for building resilience through guided practice and exercise.

Do you recognize aspects of your own path to professional resiliency in these descriptions? What has helped you adjust or rebound from adversity? Please share your experiences or advice by responding in the comments section of this post.

References:

Garcia-Dia, , J., DiNapoli, J.M., Garcia-Ona, L., Jakubowski, R. & O’Flaherty, D. (2013) Concept Analysis: Resilience. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing 27; 264-270.

Hodges, H.F., Keeley, A.C., & Grier, E.C. (2005) Professional resilience, practice longevity, and Parse’s theory for baccalaureate education. Journal of Nursing Education 44, 548-554.

Jackson, D. , Firtko, A., & Edenborough, M. (2007) Personal resilience as a strategy for surviving and thriving in the face of workplace adversity: A literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing.

McGee, E. M. (2006) The Healing Circle: Resiliency in Nurses. Issues in Mental Health Nursing 27; 43-57.

Sieg, D. (2015) 7 Habits of Highly Resilient Nurses. Reflections on Nursing Leadership 41 (1).

Sullivan, P., Bissett, K., Cooper, M., Dearholt, S., Mammen, K, Parks, J., & Pulia, K. (2012) Grace under fire: Surviving and thriving in nursing by cultivating resilience. American Journal of Nursing, 7 (12).

Tusaie K. & Dyer J. (2004) Resilience: a historical review of the construct. Holistic Nursing Practice 18, 3-10.

Warelow, P. & Edward, K-l. (2007) Caring as a resilient practice in mental health nursing. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing 16, 132-135.

 

For more on moral distress and courage see Chapter 2 Ethical Principles for Correctional Nursing in the Essentials of Correctional Nursing. You can order a copy directly from Springer Publishing and receive $15 off as well as free shipping by using this code- AF1209.

Photo credit: Peligro, cuerda rota@alejandro dans- Fotolio.com

 

Correctional Nursing: How to Improve the Practice Environment

Nursing background concept

The first examination of the qualities of professional practice in correctional nursing was done recently in Ontario, Canada. Conclusions from the surveys and interviews of 297 nurses and nurse managers were that the work environment was characterized as understaffed with significant role overload. These nurses also reported limited access to resources, significant autonomy but limited control over practice and experienced significantly higher levels of emotional abuse, conflict and bullying than nurses in other studies. The source of emotional abuse, conflict and bullying most often originated from custody staff followed by other nursing staff (Almost et.al. 2013a). These results support earlier publications about the practice challenges in correctional nursing including limited access to resources and education (Flanagan and Flanagan 2001, Maroney 2005, Smith 2005) , pressure to conform to the values of the custodial subculture (Holmes 2005), and challenges to clinical decision making authority (Smith 2005, Weiskopf 2005).

Reasons to improve the quality of the work environment include the ability to attract and retain nurses, increased productivity, improved organizational performance and better patient outcomes (Almost et.al 2013a, Sherman & Pross 2010, Dall et.al 2009, Needleman et.al 2006). Focusing on improving the professional work environment yields significant results even in the absence of increased staffing (Flynn et.al 2012, Aiken et.al. 2011, Friese et.al. 2008).

The following paragraphs discuss five factors in work environments that can be modified or enhanced to support professional nursing practice.

  1. Control over practice
    • Accurate interpretation and clarification of the state nurse practice act and its guidance in job descriptions, work assignments and policies and procedures (Knox, West, Pinney & Blair 2014, White & O’Sullivan 2012). Workplace directives should also incorporate or reference relevant aspects of the ANA standards of professional practice for correctional nurses (Knox & Schoenly 2014).
    • Work flow should be examined so that barriers to effective practice can be eliminated including system gaps that increase work complexity and work that is not related to patient care (Knox, West, Pinney & Blair 2014, Ebright 2010, Schoenly 2013). An example of the former is locating supplies used for nursing treatments in multiple locations. An example of the later is when nurses are expected to gather and report data on service volume or for quality assurance audits (number of sick call visits, number of clinic appointments, and number of incomplete MARs etc.).
    • Increase nursing participation on committees such as pharmacy and therapeutics, morbidity and mortality review, mental health, utilization review, and medical administration (Aiken et. al. 2011, Flynn et. al. 2012, Almost et.al. 2013a). Staff meetings also should be reviewed to see if meaningful two way dialogue can be increased to involve nurses in identification and early resolution of practice problems.
    • Consider assignment models that emphasize use of nursing process and clinical judgment rather than task completion; where registered nurses provide a greater proportion of direct care themselves while actively supervising care delegated to others (Corrazini et.al 2013a; MacMurdo, Thorpe & Morgan 2013). Staffing takes thoughtful preparation and legacy staffing practices may no longer work as complexity in health care delivery increases (Knox, West, Pinney & Blair 2013, Ebright 2010, MacMurdo, Thorpe & Morgan 2013).
  2. Autonomy in clinical practice
    • Considered one of the hallmarks of correctional nursing it is also an Achilles heel in the absence of appropriate clinical guidelines and support in their use (ANA 2013, Smith 2013, Smith 2005). Protocols should be based upon nursing process and coordination of care rather than reaching a medical diagnoses and rushing to treatment conclusions.
    • Nurses must be appropriately qualified and experienced in assessment and clinical reasoning as well as skilled in surveillance related to the variety of clinical situations encountered in the correctional setting to use protocols.
    • Provide access to information and tools that enhances recognition of clinical patterns and deviations necessary for good clinical judgment (Ebright 2010).
    • Assist nurses to prioritize and coordinate care with daily briefings, debriefings, huddles and work flow tracking to provide real time information about the availability and assignments of other members of the health care team (including primary care and mental health staff).
  3. Positive workplace relationships
    • Establish clear expectations for a respectful workplace in policy, procedure and other written directive. These instructions should define behaviors consistent and inconsistent with professional behavior in the workplace; describe what to do in the presence of unprofessional behavior and how to report these incidents (Almost et.al. 2013a).
    • Joint meetings and interdisciplinary training can be the vehicle to demonstrate support for the goals of both health care and custody (Almost et.al. 2013a, Weiskopf 2005).
    • Nurses may benefit from additional development in the area of conflict resolution because they have such a prominent role negotiating coordination of patient care with custody operations (Schoenly 2013, Weiskopf 2005).
    • Increase communication about patient care between registered nurses and LPN/LVNs (Corrazini et. al. 2013).
  4. Support education and certification
    • Orientation also needs to be tailored to the needs of each individual based upon education, licensure and an assessment of competency (Knox, West, Pinney & Blair 2014; Shelton, Weiskopf & Nicholson 2010). The ANA scope and standards of professional practice should also be incorporated into new employee orientation so that nurses develop institution specific skills consistent with the expectation of the professional discipline (Knox & Schoenly 2014).
    • Mentoring and coaching of new employees should be emphasized in development of expertise in clinical reasoning (Schoenly 2013, Ebright 2010).
    • Use creative, simple approaches to continuing education including self-study, reflective exercises, on-line web based seminars, facilitated case review and discussion, and a journal club (Almost et.al. 2013b, Schoenly 2013). Staff with superior knowledge and skill in a subject area can be asked to assist in developing relevant continuing education material (Knox, West, Pinney & Blair 2014).
    • Certification in correctional nursing is available through both the American Corrections Association and the National Commission on Correctional Health Care. These exams are offered regionally and can be administered at the place of employment if there are enough people taking the exam.
  5. Adequate resources
    • Includes staffing, equipment and supplies as well as access to leadership. Examining the work of first line managers may reveal sources of role overload (scheduling, meetings, payroll data gathering etc.) that impede their availability to line staff and can be reassigned to increase the availability of clinical leadership to line staff(Almost et.al. 2013a).
    • Review legacy staffing practices and work flow to identify opportunities to adjust assignments that result in more appropriate or effective use of existing resources (Knox, West, Pinney & Blair 2013, Ebright 2010).
    • Involve nurses in evaluation of equipment and technology decisions to prevent acquisition of products that complicate rather than improve delivery of patient care (Ebright 2010). For example decisions about how patient specific prescriptions were packaged have impacted timeliness and accuracy of medication administration in some correctional facilities because the packaging was cumbersome and time consuming for nurses to use.

Conclusion: Attention to the work environment of nurses (control over nursing practice, autonomy without isolation, positive working relationships, support for education and specialty certification, and adequate resources) has a profound effect on nursing practice, the ability to recruit and retain nursing personnel and on patient outcomes. More resources about work environments that support professional nursing practice can be found at the sites listed in the resources section below.

What do you think can be done to improve the professional practice work environment for correctional nurses? Are there resources or solutions not discussed here that should be? Please share your opinions by responding in the comments section of this post.

For more on correctional nursing read our book, the Essentials of Correctional Nursing. Order your copy directly from the publisher. Use promotional code AF1209 for $15 off and free shipping.

Resources

 

References

Aiken, L.H., Cimiotti, J.P., Sloane, D.M., Smith, H.L., Flynn, L., Neff, D.F. (2011) Effects of nurse staffing and nurse education on patient deaths in hospitals with different nurse work environments. Medical Care 49(12): 1047-1053.

Almost, J., Doran, D., Ogilvie, L., Miller, C., Kennedy, S., Timmings, C., Rose, D.N., Squires, M., Lee, C., Bookey-Bassett, S. (2013a) Exploring work-life issues in provincial corrections settings. Journal of Forensic Nursing 9:1

Almost, J., Gifford, W.A., Doran, D., Ogilvie, L., Miller, C., Rose, D.N., Squires, M. (2013 b) Correctional nursing: a study protocol to develop an educational intervention to optimize nursing practice in a unique context. Implementation Science 8:71

American Nurses Association. (2013) Correctional Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice. Silver Spring, MD: Nursebooks.org

Corrazzini, K.N.; Anderson, R.A.; Mueller, C.; Hunt-McKinney, S.; Day, L.; Porter, K. (2013). Understanding RN and LPN Patterns of Practice in Nursing Homes. Journal of Nursing Regulation. 4(1); 14-18.

Dall, T.M., Chen, Y.J., Seifert, R.F., Maddox, P.J., Hogan, P.F. (2009). The economic value of professional nursing. Medical Care 47 (1):97-104.

Ebright, P.R. (2010). The complex work of RNs: Implications for a healthy work environment. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 15(1).

Flanagan, N. & Flanagan, T. (2001) Correctional nurses’ perceptions of their role, training requirements and prisoner health care needs. The Journal of Correctional Health Care 8:67-85.

Flynn, L., Liang, Y., Dickson, G., Xie, M., Suh, D.C. (2012) Nurse’s practice environments, error interception practices, and inpatient medication errors. The Journal of Nursing Scholarship. 44(2):180-186.

Friese, C.R., Lake, E.T., Aiken, L.H., Silber, J.H., Sochalski, J. (2008) Hospital nurse practice environments and outcomes for surgical oncology patients. Health Services Research. 43(4): 1145-1162.

Holmes, D. (2005) Governing the captives: Forensic psychiatric nursing in corrections. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care 41(1):3-13.

Knox, C.M., Schoenly, L. (2014) Correctional nursing: A new scope and standards of practice. Correct Care, 28 (1) 12-14.

Knox, C.M., West, K., Pinney, B., Blair, P. (2014) Work environments that support professional nursing practice. Presentation at Spring Conference on Correctional Health Care, National Commission on Correctional Health Care. April 8, 2014. Nashville, TN.

MacMurdo, V., Thorpe, G., & Morgan, R. (2013) Partners in practice: Engaging front-line nursing staff as change agents. Presentation at Custody & Caring, 13th Biennial International Conference on the Nurse’s Role in the criminal Justice System. October 2-4, 2013. Saskatoon, SK.

Maroney, M.K. (2005) Caring and custody: Two faces of the same reality. Journal of Correctional Health Care. 11:157-169.

Needleman, J., Buerhaus, P.I., Stewart, M., Zelevinsky, K. Matke, S. (2006) Nurse staffing in hospitals: Is there a business case for quality? Health Affairs. 25(1):204-211.

Shelton, D., Weiskopf, C., Nicholson, M. (2010). Correctional Nursing Competency Development in the Connecticut Correctional Managed Health Care Program. Journal of Correctional Health Care. 16 (4). 38-47.

Sherman, R. & Pross, E. (2010) Growing future nurse leaders to build and sustain healthy work environments. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 15(1).

Schoenly, L. (2013) Management and Leadership. In Schoenly, L., & Knox, C. (Ed.) Essentials of Correctional Nursing. New York: Springer.

Smith, S. (2013) Nursing Sick Call. In Schoenly, L., & Knox, C. (Ed.) Essentials of Correctional Nursing. New York: Springer.

Smith, S. (2005) Stepping through the looking glass: Professional autonomy in correctional nursing. Corrections Today 67(1):54-56.

Weiskopf, C.S. (2005) Nurse’s experience of caring for inmate patients. Journal of Advanced Nursing 49(4):336-343.

White, K. & O’Sullivan, A. (2012). The Essential Guide to Nursing Practice: Applying ANAs Scope and Standards in Practice and Education. American Nurses Association. Silver Springs, MD: Nursebooks.org.

Photo credit: © Kheng Guan Toh – Fotolia.com

 

Barriers to Effective Delegation

Human Intelligence and CreativityIf delegation is a fundamental aspect of nursing practice why do nurses find it difficult? Part of the reason is that as the resources to provide care shrink and the environment for care becomes more complex the importance of delegation has become more apparent. Nursing care today is delivered in correctional settings by a wide variety of personnel (registered nurses, practical or vocational nurses, unlicensed assistive personnel, etc.) each with different educational preparation and scope of allowable practice. Correctional nurses also work in a very restrictive and challenging environment with a very diverse patient population which has complicated health care needs. The National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) identifies delegation as a “complex process of professional practice requiring sophisticated clinical judgment” (2005) and yet many nurses received little formal training in delegation during their education and employers rarely evaluate and develop nurses’ delegation skills as they do other clinical competencies (Weydt, 2010). Well no wonder nurses find delegation challenging!

The American Nurses Association (ANA) recently asked nurses what barriers to delegation they were experiencing as part of the process of updating the Principles for Delegation (2012). Three major barriers were identified and each is discussed below:

Poor partnerships: It is difficult to delegate when the nurse does not know the staff or their capabilities. It is also not practical to assess each of the staffs’ skills in all areas before making a delegation decision. Participating in the orientation of new staff is one way to get to know what skills are evaluated and to become familiar with the capabilities of individual staff.  Nurses should also periodically review staff competency records. Working together is an opportunity to build partnerships with each of the staff.  Good quality partnerships are correlated with improved patient safety (McCoy & Duffy, 2013).

Attitudes: Nurses express concern that delegation results in loss of control over patient outcomes. Another way of saying this is …“If I am held accountable for the patient, why should I delegate?”  This was discussed in last week’s post on the principles of delegation. The staff person accepting delegation is responsible for performing the assignment and accountable for accomplishing it safely and correctly. Therefore the nurse’s accountability is for the patient, not the staff’s performance. This is because the nurse retains authority to direct the patient’s ongoing care. Knowing how to identify and evaluate patient outcomes are critical aspects of accountability and delegation of patient care. These competencies are described in Standard 3 of the ANA’s publication Correctional Nursing:  Scope and Standards of Professional Practice and can be used by nurses as a resource in developing delegation skill (2013).

Sometimes the nurse goes on to say “…especially someone I either don’t know or don’t trust?” Trust comes from concentrating on building good interpersonal relationships while working together.  Delegation is an invitation to participate in the delivery of care and when delivered in a respectful and conscientious manner it promotes communication. When meaningful two-way communication is increased the quality of patient care improves (Corazini et al. 2013).

RN Leadership: The third barrier identified was lack of sufficient registered nurses to support effective delegation. Contributing factors were nurses’ lack of experience with delegation, insufficient ratio of registered nurses in the staff mix, and administrative work that supersedes clinical care.    Many correctional facilities do not have a strong structure to support professional nursing practice with policies, procedures, job descriptions and other directives or guidelines that are consistent with state laws and regulations. Uninformed or ill-advised managers may not fully support a healthy workplace that includes developing the delegation potential of registered nurses. Traditionally, little focus has been placed on developing the leadership responsibilities of nurses to ensure delivery of patient care by delegating and supervising care provided by other members of the nursing staff (Weydt 2010).

The ANA articulates the expectation that correctional registered nurses are competent to delegate care in Standard 15: Resource Utilization (2013).  Nurses can develop delegation skills by, first, becoming familiar with the laws and regulations concerning scope of practice, reviewing job descriptions and other workplace guidance that defines the roles and responsibilities of staff. The next step is to understand how the principles of delegation can be applied to patient care in the correctional setting. The use of a decision tool such the one included in the Joint Statement on Delegation (2006) helps guide nurses through the critical thinking that results in a delegation decision. As experience using structured critical thinking  increases delegation decisions are accomplished with speed and confidence. Using simulation or case review and reflection are also effective ways to build delegation skill (Weydt, 2010). Nurses can do this on their own or with a proctor or mentor at the worksite.

Your thoughts about this subject are important to us. Do these three barriers resonate with your experience as a correctional nurse?  Does your communication contribute to good interpersonal relationships? Are registered nurses sufficiently involved in clinical care to effectively delegate? Please share your experience and advice in the comments section of this post. For more information and discussion about correctional nursing order your copy of the Essentials of Correctional Nursing directly from the publisher. Use Promo Code AF1209 for $15 off and free shipping.

References

American Nurses Association (2012) Principles for Delegation by Registered Nurses to Unlicensed Assistive Personnel (UAP). Silver Spring, Maryland. Accessed on 1/29/2013 at http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ThePracticeofProfessionalNursing/NursingStandards/ANAPrinciples/PrinciplesofDelegation.pdf.aspx 

American Nurses Association (2005) Principles for Delegation. Silver Spring, Maryland. Accessed on 1/29/2013 at http://www.indiananurses.org/education/principles_for_delegation.pdf

Corazzini, K.N.; Anderson, R.A.; Mueller, C.; Hunt-McKinney, S.; Day, L.; Porter, K. (2013). Understanding RN and LPN Patterns of Practice in Nursing Homes. Journal of Nursing Regulation. 4(1); 14-18.

Correctional Nursing: Scope and Standards of Professional Practice (2013). American Nurses Association. Silver Spring, Maryland: Nursingbooks.org

McCoy, S.F. & Duffy, M. (2013, March 20). Navigating the Complex World of Delegation [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/CertificationandAccreditation/Continuing-Professional-Development/NavigateNursing/Webinars/Nav-deleg.html

National Council of State Boards of Nursing and the American Nurses Association. (2006). Joint Statement on Delegation. Retrieved December 31, 2013 at https://www.ncsbn.org/Delegation_joint_statement_NCSBN-ANA.pdf

Weydt, A. (2010). Developing delegation skills. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing 2 (1)

Photo Credit:   © freshidea – Fotolia.com

Healthy Workplace = Quality + Patient Safety

Regulation of professional nursing practiceA few weeks ago we summarized features in the new edition of the Correctional Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice (ANA, 2013).  The scope and standards are described first, as the foundation for professional nursing practice regulation because they define the specialty for nurses as well as the public. The are broad statements about the practice of the profession that transcend geographic location, type of employer and population served. The nurse practice act in the jurisdiction where the nurse is licensed provides the second level of specificity and guidance related to practice.  The employer, organization or institution  provides the third level of specificity by establishing policies, procedures and a work environment that supports professional nursing practice.  The final level in the regulation of professional nursing practice is the individual nurse who is responsible and accountable for their competence and nursing decisions (White & O’Sullivan, 2012).  This description is depicted in the diagram on the left of this post.

There is a strong link between work environments that support professional nursing practice, quality of care and patient safety.  The American Nurses Association (ANA), The Joint Commission (TJC 2012), the International Council of Nurses (ICN 2007) and the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN) are organizations that have used evidenced-based research to develop resources and establish standards for the workplace that support quality and patient safety. What are the characteristics of work environments that support nursing practice?  The AACN standards align with the core competencies for health care professionals recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The AACN provides many resources on the web and so their six standards for the healthy workplace were selected to highlight along with examples here:

  1. Nurses are as proficient in communication as they are in clinical care. Examples of practices that improve nurses’ communication skills include nursing grand rounds, assistance to publish articles and present at conferences.
  2. Nurses are relentless in pursuit of true collaboration. Examples of practices that improve nurses’ skills in collaboration include the development of nurse to nurse collaboration such as rapid response teams, development of clinical practice protocols, and participation in CQI activities.
  3. Nurses make policy, direct and evaluate clinical care, and lead organizations. Examples of practices that support nurses’ participation in the development of policy and other aspects of organizational leadership include membership on interdisciplinary committees such as Pharmacy and Therapeutics (P&T), Continuous Quality improvement (CQI), Ethics and Infection Control and other committees responsible for guidance regarding clinical patients care.
  4. Staffing effectively matches patient needs and nurse competencies.  An example of this are systems that acknowledge nurses for clinical expertise in direct patient care by rewarding advancement in clinical education and certification.
  5. Nurses are recognized and recognize others for the value they bring to the organization. Examples of practices that support meaningful recognition include clinical ladders, identification of expert nurses and publication of nurse’s advancement clinically.
  6. Nurse leaders authentically live and engage others in the achievement of a healthy work environment. Examples of practices that support authentic leadership include participation in key decision making forums, access to essential information and the authority to make necessary decisions regarding the professional nursing workforce (AACN, 2005; Vollers, et.al. 2009).

One of the distinguishing features of correctional nursing and indeed one of the challenges in the practice of correctional nurses is that prisons, jails and other correctional facilities do not have a health care mission but instead a mission of safety and security. A major role for correctional nurses is to negotiate with the correctional environment to support appropriate patient care delivered in ways that are consistent with the standards for professional practice. In order to support professional practice nurses must be knowledgeable of the state or licensing jurisdiction’s nurse practice act as well as the characteristics of work environments that are linked to quality patient care and patient safety such as the AACN described here.

What successes have you experienced supporting professional nursing practice while negotiating the differences in the mission of the criminal justice system and the delivery of health care?  Please share your experiences by writing in the comments section of this post.

For more on the topic of environments that support professional nursing practice in the correctional setting see Chapters 4, 17 & 19 of the Essentials of Correctional Nursing. The text can be ordered directly from the publisher. If you use Promo Code AF1209 the price is discounted by $15 and shipping is free.

References and Resources:

American Nurses Association. (2013). Correctional nursing scope and standards of practice. Silver Spring, MD: American Nurses Association.

White, K., O’Sullivan, A. (2012). The Essential Guide to Nursing Practice: Applying ANAs Scope and Standards in Practice and Education. American Nurses Association. Silver Springs, MD.

International Council of Nurses (2007) Positive Practice Environments: Quality Workplaces=Quality Patient Care. Geneva (Switzerland): International Council of Nurses. Accessed 6/10/2010 at http://www.icn.ch/images/stories/documents/publications/ind/indkit2007.pdf

American Association of Critical-Care Nurses. Accessed 6/10/2013 at http://www.aacn.org/wd/hwe/content/resources.content?lastmenu=#articles

The Joint Commission. Improving Patient and Worker Safety (2012).  Accessed 6/10/2013 at http://www.jointcommission.org/improving_Patient_Worker_Safety/

The American Nurses Association.  Accessed 6/10/2013 at http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/WorkplaceSafety/Healthy-Work-Environment/Work-Environment

Photo Credit:  American Nurses Association Model for Regulation of Professional Nursing Practice